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Te taetae ni Kiribati

The language of Kiribati

 

Grammar Handbook

Table of Contents

1. Sounds and Spelling

a. The vowels
b. The nasals
c. The consonants
d. Nasals before other consonants

2. Dialects

3. Intransitive Sentence Order

a. Position of additional material

4. Transitive Sentence Order

5. Interrogatives - Part 1

a. yes - no questions
b. negative questions
c. tag questions
d. tiaki

6. Interrogatives Part 2 - Who, Whose

a. antai - who
b. antena - whose

7. Interrogatives - Part 3 - What, How Many

a. teraa - what
b. raa - what, which?
c. iraua - how many?
d. Notes on asking 'what'
e. Notes on asking 'the how many-th'

8. Interrogatives - Part 4 - When, Where, Why

a. nningai - when
b. iia - where
c. maiia - from where
d. bukin teraa - why

INTERROGATIVE REVIEW EXERCISES

9. Interrogatives - Part 5 - Question Verbs

a. ngaa - to be where
b. aera - to do what
c. uara - to be how
d. nakea - to go where
e. kangaa - to do how
f. rikea - to pass by where
g. iraanna - to do in what way

10. Imperatives - Part 1

a. basic imperative formation
b. negative imperatives
c. Imperatives with an(i)
d. lengthened vowels
EXERCISES

11. Imperatives - Part 2

1. formed with na
a. first person plural
b. second person
c. negatives with na aki
2. with ke
3. taiaoka, butiiko
4. imperative verbs
EXERCISES

12. Negatives

1. aki - not
2. tuai, tuai men - not yet, never
3. negative response to questions
a. aki
b. tiaki
c. akea
EXERCISES

13. Nouns - Introductory

1. Nominalization
2. Possession
3. Plurality
4. Gender

14. The Article

1. te
2. taian(i)
3. te naa n
4. Person Articles
EXERCISES

15. Pluralization

1. absence of te
2. presence of taian(i)
3. relative pronouns
4. demonstrative pronouns
5. Numbers
6. other quantity words
7. subject pronouns
8. objects
9. taan(i)
EXERCISES

16. Numbers - Part 1 - Introductory

1. -ua
2. 1-10
3. 10-100
4. 100-1,000
5. 1,000-1,000,000
6. over 1,000,000
7. years
8. how many?
EXERCISES

17. Numbers - Part 2 - Classifiers

1. -man
2. ira-man
3. position of numerals
a. teuana
4. tabe
a. tatabe
5. other classifiers
a. note on teni and wani
EXERCISES

18. Numbers - Part 3 -Ordinals

1. ordinals
2. used verbally
3. distributive
4. fractions
5. approximation
6. mathematics
EXERCISES

19. Pronouns Introductory - Summary

1. emphatic
2. subject
3. object
4. possessive
5. poss. suffix
6. relative
7. demonstrative
a. relative time
b. relative place
c. demonstrative time
d. demonstrative place
EXERCISES

20. Subject Pronouns

EXERCISES

21. Emphatic/ Independent Pronouns

EXERCISES

22. Object Pronouns

a. reflexives
EXERCISES

23. Possession - Part 1 - Independent pronouns

EXERCISES

24. Possession - Part 2 - Suffixed pronouns

1. body parts
2. family relationships
3. intimate possessions
4. states of mind and feelings
5. positional relationships
6. nouns formed from verbs
EXERCISES

25. Possession - Part 3 - Genitive n

EXERCISES

26. Demonstrative Pronouns

EXERCISES

27. Person Demonstratives

a. Neuter demonstratives
EXERCISES

28. Relative Pronouns

a. adjectives
b. apposition
c. person demonstratives + relatives
EXERCISES

29. Adjectives

EXERCISES

30. Adjectives - Part 2 - Comparison

a. intensification
b. comparison
c. superlative
d. equality
e. summary
EXERCISES

31. Verbs - General

1. Tense
2. Agreement
3. Interrogative, Adverbial & Adjectival
4. Repeated Action
5. Passive
6. Transitive Formation
7. 'To be'
8. 'To have'
EXERCISES

32. Agent Marking

EXERCISES

33. Reduplication

1. Usually
2. Continuity
3. Adjectives
EXERCISES

34. Time Expressions - Adverbial

1. Demonstrative Time Adverbs
2. Adverbial Expressions
3. Auxiliaries
4. Verbs
EXERCISES

35. Locative Expressions

1. Locative Adverbs
2. Prepositions
EXERCISES

36. Prepositions

1. i
2. irou
3. mai
4. man
5. n(i)
6. nako/nakon
EXERCISES

37. Tense / Auxiliaries

1. present/past indeterminate
2. a - immediate indeterminate
3. tabe n - continued action
4. nang(i) - immediate future
5. na - general future
6. a tib'a - immediate past
7. a tia n - completed past
8. additional auxiliaries
EXERCISES

38. Conjunctions

1. joining noun phrases
2. joining sentenial structures
a. two verbs or adjectives
b. second sentence as object of verb
c. two simple sentences
EXERCISES

39. Conditional Sentences

1. if
2. since, when
3. additional conjunctions
EXERCISES

40. Compounding

EXERCISES

Appendix 1. Higher Numbers - Old System

Appendix 2. Numeral classifiers

Answers to Written Exercises

Index


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© 1979, 2003, 2010 Stephen Trussel, ACTION / Peace Corps, The Experiment in International Living